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America sent gear to the USSR to help win World War II
By Lauren Monsen | Sait Serkan Gurbuz
May 3, 2023

America sent gear to the USSR to help win World War II

World War II veteran Stepan Petukhov, 90, of Russia, sits in a U.S.-made, World War II-era Willys jeep at Gorky Park in Moscow in 2011. (© Alexander Zemlianichenko Jr/AP Images)

Even before the United States entered World War II in December 1941, America was sending arms and equipment to the Soviet Union to help it defeat the Nazi invasion.

Although in August 1939 the Soviet Union and Germany had signed a nonaggression treaty, Germany’s June 1941 invasion of the USSR brought their alliance to an end, forcing the Soviets to confront the Nazis as enemies. President Franklin D. Roosevelt convinced Congress the U.S. should provide military aid to nations “vital to the defense of the United States.”

“We cannot, and we will not, tell [them] that they must surrender, merely because of present inability to pay for the weapons which we know they must have.”

Under the Lend-Lease Act, enacted nine months before the U.S. entered the war, Washington dispatched war supplies to Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union. While the U.S. and the USSR disagreed in other areas, the threat Hitler posed to the world brought them to a common objective.

Red Army soldiers, with a U.S.-made tank on the left, stand on Lenin Street in Belgorod, Russia, in February 1943. (© AP Images)


Technically, the U.S. lent these materials. As Roosevelt told cost-conscious Americans:

“Suppose my neighbor’s home catches fire. … If he can take my garden hose and connect it up with his hydrant I may help him to put out his fire. Now, what do I do? I don’t say to him before that operation, ‘Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you have got to pay me $15 for it.’ I don’t want $15 — I want my garden hose back. In other words, if you lend certain munitions, and munitions come back after the war, you are all right.”

Ultimately, the U.S. did not seek or expect much in the way of monetary repayment. Some wartime debts were later settled at a greatly reduced rate, but Lend-Lease was mostly a grant by the United States, the nation Roosevelt called the “arsenal of democracy” to its partners against Nazism and fascism.

Equipping the Red Army


Soviet troops position anti-tank guns in northern Caucasus in September 1942 as American-made trucks, sent to them as part of the lend-lease program, follow. (© Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images)


After Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, America sent the first convoys with goods to the Soviet Union by August.

The scope of the aid is detailed by Russia Beyond, an online publication of Russia’s state newspaper (Rossiyskaya Gazeta), and also by many historians, including U.S. policy analyst Albert L. Weeks in his 2004 book Russia’s Life-Saver: Lend-Lease Aid to the USSR in World War II.

In the final tally, America sent its Russian ally the following military equipment:

    • 400,000 jeeps and trucks
    • 14,000 airplanes
    • 8,000 tractors
    • 13,000 tanks
A Soviet night bomber crew with a U.S.-made Douglas A-20 Havoc bomber during World War II (© Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images)


And these supplies:

  • More than 1.5 million blankets
  • 15 million pairs of army boots
  • 107,000 tons of cotton
  • 2.7 million tons of petroleum products (to fuel airplanes, trucks and tanks)
  • 4.5 million tons of food


Preparation of canned pork (Russian: “svinaia tushonka”) for Lend-Lease shipment to the USSR at the Kroger grocery and baking company in Cincinnati in June 1943 (Library of Congress/U.S. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information/Howard R. Hollem)


Americans also sent guns, ammunition, explosives, copper, steel, aluminum, medicine, field radios, radar tools, books and other items. The U.S. even transported an entire Ford Company tire factory, which made tires for military vehicles, to the Soviet Union. From 1941 through 1945, the U.S. sent $11.3 billion, or $180 billion in 2016 dollars, in goods and services to the Soviets.

The difference it made


Soviet Premier Josef Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt talk at the Soviet Embassy during the Tehran Conference in Tehran, Iran, on December 7, 1943. (© Underwood Archives/Getty Images)


Sergeant Anthony Gioia, left, a waist gunner in a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber, shakes hands with a Red Army soldier in 1944. (© Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images)

In a November 1941 letter to Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Josef Stalin wrote:

“Your decision, Mr. President, to give the Soviet Union an interest-free credit of $1 billion in the form of materiel supplies and raw materials has been accepted by the Soviet government with heartfelt gratitude as urgent aid to the Soviet Union in its enormous and difficult fight against the common enemy — bloodthirsty Hitlerism.”

At a dinner toast with Allied leaders during the Tehran Conference in December 1943, Stalin added: “The United States … is a country of machines. Without the use of those machines through Lend-Lease, we would lose this war.”

Nikita Khrushchev, who led the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, agreed with Stalin’s assessment. In his memoirs, Khrushchev described how Stalin stressed the value of Lend-Lease aid: “He stated bluntly that if the United States had not helped us, we would not have won the war.”

Unearthing a forgotten story

The former Museum of the Allies and Lend-Lease, in Moscow, offered physical evidence of America’s contributions to the Soviet war effort.

When the museum opened in 2004, the son of Soviet Marshal K.K. Rokossovsky donated his father’s American-made World War II Willys jeep. The museum displayed the still-operational vehicle and even took it on occasional driving trips. The museum also showcased a unique collection of uniform buttons carrying Soviet symbols on the front and stamped “Made in Chicago” on the back.

The museum is no longer active, but its former director, Nikolai Borodin, remains dedicated to publicizing the Lend-Lease story. In addition to military aid, he says, the U.S. sent food, clothes and toys to Russian civilians.

Under Lend-Lease, “whatever was asked for was received,” he says.

Leaders’ reflections

In his May 9, 2005, remarks at a Moscow parade honoring the 60th anniversary of the Allied victory against Nazi Germany, Russian President Vladimir Putin honored Russian sacrifices — the USSR suffered more casualties than any other force engaged in the war — and acknowledged Allied help in winning World War II.

Soldiers from the Soviet Union, the U.S. and the United Kingdom pose in Berlin on August 22, 1945. (© B.I. Sanders/AP Images)


“Dear friends, we never divided the victory into ours and someone else’s,” Putin said. “We will always remember the assistance from the Allies: the United States of America, Great Britain, France and other nations of the anti-Hitler coalition, [plus] German and Italian anti-fascists.”

Decades earlier, addressing the U.K. House of Commons shortly after Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill hailed the late president for ensuring the delivery of U.S. aid to the Allies during the largest armed conflict in human history.

Roosevelt, Churchill said, “devised the extraordinary measure of assistance called Lend-Lease, which will stand forth as the most unselfish and unsordid financial act of any country in all history.”

American leaders, for their part, were well satisfied that the Lend-Lease program helped achieve their objective: the defeat of Hitler.

This story was originally published April 29, 2020.